Methodology to Improve Productivity using SMED & TPM - Experts opinion about it.
I am doing my dissertation on a methodology to improve productivity using SMED, TPM, I'm interested in expert opinion about it.
I send the link to access the proposed methodology. I welcome your comments and suggestions.
Detail of each stage is show next:
The aim of the methodology is to improve productivity, one of the best indicators to measure productivity in almost any manufacturing company is the OEE therefore proposes to start with the establishment of a system of measurement and analysis of this indicator.
Constant monitoring of this indicator will assess the progress and the progress made in implementing TPM / SMED. This relationship is depicted in Figure 4.2.
Figure 4.2 OEE as an indicator of performance.
The process of implementation of TPM / SMED must be sustained and supported, in all respects by the direction of the company, ie, there must be a full commitment to high levels of the organization and practice of leadership influence, to that can lead to market this implementation.
The second element of the methodology is the commitment of the Management and Leadership Influence, this element is essential because TPM / SMED involves a cultural change must be given on the elements of the organization, which is required to have everyone resources for successful implementation. Figure 4.3 shows the relationship between resources and influential leadership to ensure that there is management commitment.
Figure 4.3 Management Commitment
Finally, the stage of institutionalization refers to the inclusion of the TPM elements in other areas of the company.
1.1 DESCRIPTION OF METHODOLOGY
COMMITMENT PHASE 1 ADDRESS: For the TPM work requires effective leadership from the beginning, for this reason, stage 1 of the methodology is called "Management Commitment."
The company's top management must be convinced of wanting to implement the TPM in the company, hence the term "Total", this means that everyone must participate in the implementation, commissioning and maintenance of the TPM.
The management commitment should be reflected in effective leadership that allows the involvement of each of the levels of the company, it should also keep in mind that the allocation of resources, financial and organizational, must be guaranteed.
Management should create an official release of the TPM strategy, with an assembly aimed at all levels of the organization to address here will show its commitment and willingness to collaborate and seek the cooperation and commitment of its employees, the above are the goal of creating an enabling environment for the introduction of TPM, this environment will function to prevent the emergence of skepticism and resistance that could kill the initiative.
At this stage it should create policies and goals to be achieved, policies are formed naturally by abstract propositions, goals must be clear, precise quantitative and must specify the purpose, amount and period. It is essential to measuring and understanding the current condition of the organization, as characteristic of more frequent breakdowns, default rates for part or machine, etc., Setting achievable goals.
STAGE 2 PREPARATION OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES:
For proper implementation of TPM management should keep in mind strategies that can offset the effects of resistance to change, and the initial effects of the early stages of implementation, Implementation strategies for the organization must show the "hows" to deal with future situations arising from the implementation of TPM.
These strategies are categorized into the following aspects:
• Human Capital
• Knowledge Management
• Cultural change
• Production Scheduling.
The organizational strategy must foresee all the necessary changes in the structure of the organization, a preliminary analysis of the current structure will help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of it, the allocation and / or redistribution of resources shall be shown, the formation of structures and MFDs will have to be mentioned at least generically.
Human capital strategy is the direction that will allow an overview of your team, your skills, knowledge and experience, the staff analysis to discover potential, prior to the formation of teams.
It is recommendable to conduct an array of abilities in each of the levels of the organization, in order to visualize the human capital which account and facilitate the process of allocating human resources to the TPM initiative.
The knowledge management strategy, provide to the company, meet the objective of increasing the capacity and ability of their employees, this strategy should contain the basic elements that allow the flow of knowledge between different levels and functions of the organization, it is clear that the detail is shown on the overall training program and training, but this strategy will display the current resource requirements and future, anticipating that these are delivered in a timely fashion.
Cultural change strategy, referred to as the company faced natural resistance to change traditional ways of working. It is necessary for human resource representatives are prepared to address the concerns of workers, this strategy becomes vital to the success of TPM in companies with difficult labor relations.
The programming strategy of production, is about how to deal with possible fluctuations in production capacity of the company resulting from the implementation of TPM activities, this strategy takes vital importance, especially in the early stages of implementation, since generated major changes in the organization.
This strategy should include plans for grading of production, program staff should be aware of the new activities of the organization and support for these activities may be carried.
STEP 3 CREATION OF WORKING GROUPS MULTIFUNCTION
When defining the groups involved will take into account a number of details.
There will be a pyramid structure so that the grassroots groups abide by the decisions of the higher groups. Groups of this system must be small (5 or 6 people), there is also a leader who is head of the group, and a member of a group in the hierarchy. There must be a very fluid communication between groups, so there will be people who belong to both groups of different hierarchies, so that the remaining members have first hand information of the decisions and views presented by the rest.
The composition of the groups must be represented so that they are all company departments involved in the production and all the factors that affect it (Maintenance, Quality, etc.).. The groups that form the organizational structure of TPM are:
Team Leader, is ultimately responsible. Its functions are to monitor the project, set goals and overall objectives, decide on investment proposals, promote and support TPM activities once they begin. This activity-based team needs to include members from each level of the organization from top management to floor personnel. The reason for this structure is to foster communication and ensure everyone to keep working toward common goals defined in Stage 1 of this methodology.
Support Committee: This is the real engine of TPM project. It lies midway between the groups TPM TPM implementing actions, and Team Leader, responsible. Among its functions are to support and coordinate the TPM groups, weekly monitoring of indicators, assign tasks, receive suggestions, proposals to raise investment to the project team, etc.
Groups TPM: TPM implementing actions. Among its functions are to conduct Self Maintenance, analyze specific problems, make proposals for improvement, etc.
The working groups will maintain a pyramidal relationship as discussed above, be at the forefront of it by the Team Leader as Head TPM, the committee will support the base and find the TPM groups.
The task forces or action teams should be cross-functional, should be formed based on the equipment or systems which are involved, it aims to solve the problems associated with office equipment.
STEP 4 CREATION OF THE MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING OF OEE
The OEE is the indicator proposed by this methodology to measure the performance of implementing TPM reflected in productivity.
One of the main challenges behind the team leader, will create a system that allows the measurement, analysis and monitoring of OEE in each of the areas of implementation.
The main characteristics of this system are considered, the simplicity of calculation for the operators, the speed of analysis for the analysts, the availability of real-time information for members of the teams and the reliability of information transfer.
No more waiting until this information system is ripe to start with other implementation activities, nevertheless it is essential to maintain focus on this tool to make decisions related to the performance of the implementation and improvement activities in each of the areas.
STEP 5 CREATING THE PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
The team leader will be responsible for generating the master schedule of implementation, this is the document that indicates the sequence of activities to be performed, and responsible commitment dates of each activity.
This master plan should include the preparation phase prior to implementation and training program.
The five key activities focusing on the TPM and must be described in the master schedule are:
• Improving the Effectiveness of team
• Establishment of autonomous maintenance
• Planned Maintenance Program
• Training plan and training.
The detail of each of these activities is described in the following stages of this methodology.
STAGE 6 COMPREHENSIVE CLEANING
The complete cleaning program is planning to carry out cleanup activities and basic care for the process equipment.
It is characterized by the establishment of routine cleaning and basic care specific to each team work on a machine or process equipment.
These routines must be performed according to the program, based on an analysis of initial conditions of all teams, the program must ensure the establishment of priorities and optimal learning sequences for operators.
In the initial description of the LAB routines (cleaning and basic care), to become the emerging autonomous teams or groups TPM, maintenance personnel and support committees, this in order to take into account all views and encourage TPM groups in developing their new roles.
This program and its routines should be reviewed constantly, especially in the first weeks of implementation.
It should create a communication mechanism that allows the TPM groups voice their comments on the improvement of routines, based on experience that will be acquired. This part is essential to raise the morale of the TPM groups, feeling taken into account.
Proper implementation of this stage will facilitate the transition path between TPM groups to become self-maintenance groups.
STAGE 8 TRAINING AND MIGRATION A SELF SERVICE
The idea of autonomous maintenance is that each operator is able to diagnose and prevent failures that occur in the handling equipment, thus prolonging the life of declining costs in equipment and malfunctions. It is not intended by this that the charge of handling the machine take over full maintenance of it, but because the length of time the worker spends with the team, be it in the best position to detect a change in the proper operation and do simple maintenance how to maintain their equipment by performing daily checks, lubrication, replacement of items, repairs, accuracy checks and other maintenance tasks, including early detection of abnormalities. These works can be seen as mere additional tasks included in the production process.
By this stage plays a key activity of the TPM, the establishment of autonomous maintenance.
During this stage when they materialize the provisions stemming from human capital strategies and knowledge management of stage 2.
At this stage training and TPM training groups will be crucial to achieve autonomous maintenance.
The experience of the previous stage of the methodology will help, but the challenge at this stage is much higher.
The TPM group members must acquire skills and self-maintenance skills to reduce and eliminate interruptions during production processes.
The acquisition of such skills should be gradually and follow a structured program of work, which is divided into the following stages:
1. Initial Cleaning: The objective of this phase is to conduct a thorough cleaning of equipment, so that while it involves a form of inspection to help detect all types of abnormalities.
2. Eliminate sources of contamination and inaccessible areas: If the first phase, the intention was clear, in this second order is not dirty and have the means to facilitate inspections. This will need to find the dirt and pollution more important. These are more easily detected by the initial cleaning can see which ones have a more rapid deterioration.
3. Building cleaning and lubrication standards: Standards are sheets detailing the actions necessary to preserve the conditions achieved after steps 1 and 2. Experience gained from the first two phases will enable TPM groups developing standards in partnership with the maintenance department. The effectiveness of the standards produced will be greater if those who have to follow them.
4. General inspection: The purpose of this step is to educate operators on the common aspects of different teams and the peculiarities of each. In this way the workers have received basic training.
5. Autonomous inspection. In this step there are two basic objectives, updating the standards achieved in steps 3 and 4 and improve and master the facility so as to achieve improved product quality.
At this point, a distinction of the inspections carried out by TPM groups and those that require the participation of the maintenance department.
STAGE 7 SYSTEM OF DETECTION, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING OF LOSS
The main objective of TPM is to eliminate the losses that are in a production process, the methodology proposes a stage where the emphasis this goal through an information system to detect, analyze and provide timely follow-up to losses.
This information system should be designed in such a way that meets the following objectives:
• Be friendly to the operator, simplicity is the main premise
• Be easy access to information, computer systems allow a fast analysis time compared to manual systems.
• Be safe and reliable, the reliability of the information will be vital for the proper maintenance decisions.
The creation of a committee of specific support for this tool is the most recommended by the relevance of this activity.
Technical and operational knowledge of the production equipment should be part of the fundamental requirements for the integration of the support committee, including operational staff on the committee can facilitate the process of knowing "the mind of the operator."
The use of techniques to obtain information manuals (written formats) will greatly reduce the ability of system information analysis.
The use of electronic computer systems is highly recommended by the great capacity of analysis.
It is important to generate the machine operators a culture of honesty and consistency, to detect losses in a systematic way, by this analysis to find a way to eliminate the root in each of the computers in the enterprise.
STAGE 9 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
TPM implementation must build in all areas of the company a new way of doing things, open your mind to new ways of working.
The maintenance department must build for himself a new way of managing the maintenance function.
The maintenance management system should seek the following objectives:
• Preserving the productive fixed assets, extending their useful life, economic, reducing physical depreciation and prolonging the time of renewal.
• Avoid unplanned, unscheduled, production and service.
• Eliminate product liability losses and preserving the quality of the process.
• Eliminate consequential breakdowns of machines in the machine itself and its system in the process of transformation, and the staff that operates it.
• Eliminate the high cost of repairs caused by breakdowns.
• Keep records of inventories, especially in parts, supplies and general supplies, and the incidence of capital immobilization, making the logistics function more efficiently.
• Reduce the costs of third party services, making efficient use of scarce and valuable human resources of its own.
• Reduce energy costs for systems loss or misuse of the machines through, Maintenance Audits.
• Maintain the availability of systems and equipment to support the production process.
• Ensuring the effectiveness, efficiency and productivity of maintenance services.
For the maintenance management concept is fulfilled, the maintenance department should intervene in the purchase of equipment, storage, recycling and processes to determine the low equipment and items that have already completed their life cycles.
The maintenance management system must in turn be a comprehensive process of information management that will:
• Develop and consolidate inventory.
• Check the operation of equipment.
• Rank the teams into groups for group analysis.
• Develop maintenance routines:
• Predictive Maintenance PD.
• PV Preventive Maintenance.
• Corrective Maintenance CO.
Finally, we must maintain a system of control, monitoring, evaluation and feedback, which should be undertaken regularly.
The use of management software is not excluded, however more powerful and sophisticated software is currently available, it is useless if not fed truthful, accurate and expeditious.
Therefore, if the organization would prefer a specialized software to manage their maintenance functions, one of his main challenges will be that all users provide the required information in a timely manner, allowing the analysis derived from this information is accurate, accurate and useful to the organization in the resolution, and preventable problems in the maintenance function.
At present maintenance management systems are computer-aided software tools that aid in the management of maintenance services company. Basically a database that contains information about the company and its maintenance. This information is for all maintenance tasks are carried out more safely and effectively. Also used as a management tool for decision making.
The benefits of using a maintenance management system for computer aided below:
• optimization of labor resources: Improved planning, monitoring and implementation.
• Optimization of material resources: Increased availability, reduced inventory, easy location.
• Improved quality and productivity of the organization.
• Reduced downtime in productive assets, improved reliability and availability.
• Updates, immediate of all components of the process.
• Improved processes for action set.
• Ability to conduct studies and anticipated workloads or parts consumption.
• Immediate knowledge of the expenses incurred by any of the items controlled.
• Set of maintenance plans and the actual characteristics.
• Traceability of equipment.
• Better control of outsourced activities.
• Overall control of any of the processes involved in maintenance.
11 STAGE MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS
Once the steps 7, 8 and 9 of this methodology has been successfully implemented, it is the possibility of working in continuous improvement of the TPM system.
The detection system, analysis, and monitoring of losses, provide the basis to know the areas of opportunity or could be improved, this system should be linked to the maintenance management system (step 9) so that you can share information, to manage these improvements.