For calculating of p-value used data form type 1 MSA study (one pcs. measured 50 times with same appraiser). See explanation and formulas below.

**p-value **

P-value associated with t. It is the probability of seeing a t statistic as large or larger than the calculated one, assuming that the bias is zero. So as t gets larger, P gets smaller. A small P implies that the assumption that the bias = 0 is probably not true.

**T **

The t-statistic for testing the null hypothesis that bias = 0 versus the alternate that bias 0.

where

n = number of measurements

X = mean of n measurements

Xm = reference measurement

S = standard deviation

t follows the t-distribution with n degrees of freedom, where n = n-1.

**Bias **

The gage bias is calculated by the difference between the mean of the n measurements and the reference value.

Bias = X - Xm

where

X = mean of n measurements

Xm = reference measurement

**For calculating **Repeatability as a percentage of Tolerance and Process Variation use standard form for variable or type 1 MSA.