Kevin - I suspect that you are close to the truth. Womack and colleagues got some things right but misunderstood others. Toyota was notoriously close lipped especially in the early days of US curiosity. a lot had to be inferred from observations. and Ohno was even more dense and obtuse in his conversations than Deming. this was confounded by the lack of direct translation form Japanese to English. My experience has also been that some things that were deemed to be 'nationalistically' unsavory to Americans were altered to make them more palatable.