My question is, what/when is a nonconformity? Therefore what requires an NCR?

#1
This is an old thread but its the closest I could find to what I am looking for.

My question is, what/when is a nonconformity? Therefore what requires an NCR?

I have found lots of information about the subjective nature for determining the need for a CAR. But I have not found anything about what is a nonconformity and when is an NCR required.

Now, before you say that a non conformity is a failure to meet a requirement, realize that when a raw part enters a workcell it does not meet the customer's finished requirement. But we are not going to NCR a raw part that is in process. So I assume we would look to our internal processes for conformity.

To avoid writing NCR's all the time, why can't I write a procedure that allows "rework" within the work cell until the part meets "the requirements" of that procedure?

Here are some examples below:

From ASQ experts:
Bud Salsbury
ASQ Senior Member, CQT, CQI

Example: A welder accidentally causes weld spatter to fly into a tapped hole. The welder cleans out the B-B’s, re-taps the hole and moves on. Generating a non-conformance form should not be necessary in this case as no product was scrapped or made nonconforming.

From Jim Wynne in this thread: "It's not unusual for there to be a "touchup" operation after wave soldering--it's often a normal part of the process, and thus isn't considered rework. Rework happens as a result of nonconformity--a failure to meet requirements. It can involve missing or misplaced components, cold or missing solder joints, etc. Anything that causes an assembly to go backwards in the process should be considered rework."

I saw a different example that said a hole drilled to 9mm that is supposed to be 10mm is a nonconformity. I can see if that product is passed on and found elsewhere then it is a nonconformity. But if the machinist looks at his work and then fixes it by drilling to 10mm, why would that require an NCR?

If a process includes touchup after wave soldering is it a nonconformity that requires an NCR?
What are the extents of touchup? Is a tombstoned component a nonconformity if it is fixed in the workcell and does not leave that operation?

This seems like a very gray area!!
 
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outdoorsNW

Quite Involved in Discussions
#2
The original post was about PCBs, and I am going to use PCBs as an example.

For bare rigid PCBs, most of the time IPC-6012 and IPC-A-600 are used to determine what is acceptable. Almost all customer and MIL specs make frequent references to these two documents. Some specialized applications use other IPC specs, but most of those IPC specs make many references back to the two listed earlier or are referenced inside the two documents.

For assembled boards, J-STD-001 and IPC-A-610 are used. These two documents are frequently referenced by most customer specific, MIL, and special purpose specs.

For defining rework vs repair of assembled PCBs, IPC 7711/7721 define rework and repair procedures, clearly identifying what is rework and what is repair in the section title. My company has customers who use different definitions, but 7711/7721 is our usual guide.


As to the previous post, if a hole is drilled out 1 mm, is the hole roundness and surface finish going to be the same as a hole drilled at 10mm from the beginning? Is the alignment going to be the same or has later steps made accurate work holding more difficult? Does roundness or surface finish matter for the application? If the hole is reamed either way, the reamer may make the holes functionally the same.
 

optomist1

A Sea of Statistics
Trusted Information Resource
#3
Make certain you check your industry definition of rework vs repair. I have seen industries where the definitions are not to the common usage.
For example:
Audit and survey
Rework and repair
are two that I have encountered differing interpretations.
Agreed, as it tends to be an industry specific definition, and in some cases a CSR or Customer Specific Requirement...some firms may in fact consider re-runing a PCB across a wave solder station a rework.....my own crude definition + Rework brings it back to full specs, Repair restores functionality but not to spec...hope this helps
 

John Broomfield

Staff member
Super Moderator
#4
Repair would be a design change (but see Note below).

Rework would conform to the design.

Note: The design may however specify any permissible repairs to correct common nonconformities.
 

msbettyhunt

Starting to get Involved
#5
In simple words to understand the concept Rework is an act of reprocessing non-complying product, through the use of original or alternate equivalent processing, in a manner that assures compliance of the product with applicable drawings or specifications. Repair – Action on a nonconforming product to make it conform to requirements.
 

John Broomfield

Staff member
Super Moderator
#6
Repair – Action on a nonconforming product to make it conform to requirements.
Betty,

We have to be careful here:

A. Repaired product may be made suitable for use; conforming to an approved design/contract change.

B. Some nonconforming products may be reworked (and reverified) as conforming to the original requirements.

In my experience, repair is always a design change or a contract change and may result in a lower price.

Best wishes,

John
 

Tagin

Trusted Information Resource
#7
From 9000:2015, for what its worth:
rework
  • action on a nonconforming product or service to make it conform to the requirements
    • Note 1 to entry: Rework can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product or service.
repair
  • action on a nonconforming product or service to make it acceptable for the intended use
    • Note 1 to entry: A successful repair of a nonconforming product or service does not necessarily make the product or service conform to the requirements. It can be that in conjunction with a repair a concession is required.
    • Note 2 to entry: Repair includes remedial action taken on a previously conforming product or service to restore it for use, for example as part of maintenance.
    • Note 3 to entry: Repair can affect or change parts of the nonconforming product or service
 

Cari Spears

Super Moderator
Staff member
Super Moderator
#10
...A. Repaired product may be made suitable for use; conforming to an approved design/contract change. … In my experience, repair is always a design change or a contract change and may result in a lower price.
Or it could be accepted under concession without changes to the design or contract, or a reduction in price. Depends on your customer and your industry.
 
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