Eight Disciplines Problem Solving
8D - Eight Disciplines Problem Solving
An 8D is a set of steps one goes through to identify the Root Cause of a nonconformance (problem solving). An 8D includes Preventive Action (steps taken to ensure the Root Cause is 'eliminated'), may include error-proofing (sensor to detect a failure of the preventive action when the preventive action cannot ensure 100% that the defect will not occur again, which is often the case) and concludes with verification that the preventive action and/or error-proofing (such as by passing a known bad part into the process and seeing if it will be detected) is effective.
The name 8D comes from a FORD program but the basic methodology goes back to the 1940's and earlier. One might argue that the 8D process is centuries old because the basics are what one has to go through to prevent problem from happening again which man has been doing for a long time. DaimlerChrysler has a similar methodology they call a 7D.
1. Use Team Approach
Establish a small group of people with the knowledge, time, authority and skill to solve the problem and implement corrective actions. The group must select a team leader.
2. Describe the Problem
Describe the problem in measurable terms. Specify the internal or external customer problem by describing it in specific terms.
3. Implement and Verify Short-Term Corrective Actions
Define and implement those intermediate actions that will protect the customer from the problem until permanent corrective action is implemented. Verify with data the effectiveness of these actions.
4. Define end Verify Root Causes
Identify all potential causes which could explain why the problem occurred. Test each potential cause against the problem description and data. Identify alternative corrective actions to eliminate root cause.
5. Verify Corrective Actions
Confirm that the selected corrective actions will resolve the problem for the customer and will not cause undesirable side effects. Define other actions, if necessary, based on potential severity of problem.
6. Implement Permanent Corrective Actions
Define and implement the permanent corrective actions needed. Choose on-going controls to insure the root cause is eliminated. Once in production, monitor the long-term effects and implement additional controls as necessary.
7. Prevent Recurrence
Modify specifications, update training, review work flow, improve practices and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems.
8. Congratulate Your Team
Recognize the collective efforts of your team. Publicize your achievement. Share your knowledge and learning.
Related Elsmar Cove Forum Eight Disciplines Problem Solving Discussion Threads
== References ==