Error-proofing refers to the implementation of fail-safe mechanisms to prevent a process from producing defects. This activity is also know by the Japanese term poka-yoke, from poka (inadvertent errors) and yokeru (to avoid) - pronounced POH-kuh YOH-kay. Although this common-sense concept has been around for a long time, it was more fully developed and popularized by Shigeo Shingo in Japan. The philosophy behind error proofing is that it is not acceptable to make even a very small number of defects, and the only way to achieve this goal is to prevent them from happening in the first place. In essence, error-proofing becomes a method 100% inspection at the source rather than down the line, after additional value has been added (wasted). Achieving extremely high levels of process capability requires this type of focus on prevention rather than detection.