Quality Assurance Terms Glossary/E
Empathy - A dimension of service quality that refers to the amount of caring and individualized attention exhibited by the service firm.
Empirical Law of Averages - States that if one repeats a random experiment over and over, independently and under "identical" conditions, the fraction of trials that result in a given outcome converges to a limit as the number of trials grows without bound.
Empirical Method - Relying upon or derived from observation or experiment (from Latin and Greek words meaning "experience")
Empowerment – (1) A management initiative designed to move decision making to the lowest level in the organization. (2) In the strict sense: authorization or permission. In a broader sense: taking action or creating conditions in which another person's full potential may be better realized, e.g., By providing proper tools, good training, clear direction, effective processes and systems and an environment in which the employee can take pride and find joy in his/her work. This broader definition is also referred to as "enablement" or enabling an employee.
End User - The ultimate user of a product or service.
Engineering Analysis - The process of applying engineering concepts to the design of a product, including tests such as heat transfer analysis, stress analysis, or analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the system being designed.
Enterprise Capabilities - Capabilities that make firms unique and attractive to customers.
Entropy - In common usage: the tendency of systems to deteriorate toward a disordered state.
Equipment - Any instrument, tool or device used in the generation, measurement and/or assessment of data.
Evaluation - Assessment of how relevant resources and capabilities are to generic strategies in generic internal assessment.
Evaporating Cloud - A term used to describe a methodology developed by goldratt (theory of constraints) to resolve conflicts in a "win-win" manner. Name relates to the idea that conflicts, like clouds, are often indistinct i.e., People are unable to articulate the real reasons for the conflict.
Exogenous Factors - A term borrowed from biology: derived or developed from external causes. In this case referring to external factors influencing the process or system.
Experiential Training Techniques - Training that is hands-on and provides the recipients of training the opportunity to experience in some manner the concepts that are being taught.
Expert System - A term used to identify systems or software that are developed with "expertise" built in. Presented to users as "ready for use". Users should seek information by which to judge the underlying assumptions on which the system is designed, the quality of the data used, and whether all relevant factors were included in the design.
External Customers - The ultimate consumers of the goods that an organization produces.
External Events - a term used in fault tree analysis. An external event is an event that is normally expected to occur and thus is not considered a fault when it occurs by itself.
External Failure Costs - (1) These are monetary losses associated with product failure after the customer has possession of the product. These may include warranty or field repair costs. (2) Costs associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service
External Services - Service that are provided by companies other than yours.
External Validation - Using benchmarking as a way to ensure that a firm’s current practices are comparable to those being used by benchmark firms.
Extrinsic motivation - Action taken because of external factors, such as pay, bonus, threatened consequences, coercion, etc.