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Quality Assurance Terms Glossary/M

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Machine Capability - aka Cmk

Maintainability - The probability that a failed system can be made operable in a specified interval or downtime.

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award - aka MBNQA.

A U.S. National quality award sponsored by the U.S. Department of commerce and private industry. The award is named after former secretary of commerce Malcolm Baldrige.

Malpractice - The result of mistakes made by a professional service provider.

Management - "Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization" (3.3.1) according to ISO 9000 3.2.6

Management System - " system (3.1.2) to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives" (3.2.2) according to ISO 9000

Management By Fact - A core value of the Baldrige award that focuses on data-based decision making.

Management Review - Typically a formal evaluation by top management of the status and adequacy of the quality system in relation to quality policy and objectives.

Manufacturing System Design - The process of designing a manufacturing system.

Margin of Error - A measure of the uncertainty in an estimate of a parameter;. The margin of error of an estimate is typically one or two times the estimated standard error of the estimate.

Market Share Data - A comparative measure that determines relative positions of firms in the marketplace.

Material Review Board - aka MRB

Matrix diagram - a brainstorming tool that can be used in a group to show the relationships between ideas or issues.

MBO - Management-By-Objective - A term used to describe a method for achieving organizational objectives. Top management would set broad goals, then each subsequent layer below would identify how it would support and implement those goals, providing greater and greater degrees of detail. Dr. Deming notes that the result of MBO as practiced, will likely be suboptimization of the organization. Because there is a strong tendency to focus on the result (numbers), rather than on the systems and processes that produce those numbers, and because the typical reward system emphasizes the importance of those numbers, employees find ways to give management the numbers, often by taking actions that are not in the best interests of the organization.

Mean - The average of a collection of numbers, the mean of a population is represented by m and represents the mean of a sample.

Mean Squared Error aka MSE - Expected value of the square of the difference between the estimator and the parameter. The MSE measures how far the estimator is off from what it is trying to estimate, on the average in repeated experiments. It is a summary measure of the accuracy of the estimator. It combines any tendency of the estimator to overshoot or undershoot the truth (bias), and the variability of the estimator (se).

Measurement - A process for making an observation or evaluation. Like any process, measurement involves the interaction of people, methods, materials, and equipment in an environment to produce an output in this case a number or evaluation. To extract meaning from measurements, the measurement process must be stable (in statistical control).

Measurement Systems Analysis aka MSA - Analysis of the complete process of obtaining measurements. This includes the collection of equipment, operations, procedures, software and personnel that affects the assignment of a number to a measurement characteristic. Includes, but is not limited to, Gage R&R.

Median - The middle value in a set of a data.

Meeting Management - A term that refers to the effective management of meeting in an organization.

Micro-Management - Focused on details and minutia to the point of failing to see the larger picture.

Milky Way Training - A term coined by Dr.Deming to describe worker training worker (and thereby passing errors, personal bias, inconsistencies, etc. From one worker to the next), leading further and further away from the desired target, thereby "going off to the milky way"

MIL-Q-9858 A - A military standard that describes quality program requirements

MIL-STD-105 E - A military standard that describes the sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes

MIL-STD-45662 A - A military standard that describes the requirements for creating and maintaining a calibration system for measurement and test equipment.

Mode - The value which occurs most frequently in a set of data.

Moment of Truth - In a service context, the phrase “moment of truth” refers to the point in a service experience at which the customer expects something to happen.

Moment of Truth Analysis - A tool that helps identify and capture customer perceptions about a process.

MRB - aka Material Review Board

Mr Chart - A chart for plotting variables when samples are not possible.

Muda - a Japanese term indicating efforts that do not add value (waste). Some categories of muda are defects, over production or excess inventory, idle time and poor layout.

Multilevel Approach - Term used to depict state quality award programs that include two levels: a top level based on the full-baldrige criteria and a second level based on the baldrige-lite approach.

Multiple Skills Systems - A method for developing employees so that they can perform more than a single task.

Multi-User-CAD Systems - Computer aided design systems that are networked so that multiple designers can work on a single design simultaneously.

Multi-Vari Chart - A chart that displays the variance within units, between units, between samples and between lots. It is useful in detecting variation sources within a process.

Multi-Vari Studies - Methods to observe a process as it runs in its normal state. By noting the state of input variables, and the simultaneous state of output variables, basic correlation can be quantified. Sometimes a study such as this will reveal the sources of problems, while in other cases, the outputs of the study become the inputs to a factorial experiment.