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Quality Assurance Terms Glossary/T

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t Test - A hypothesis test based on approximating the probability histogram of the test statistic by student's t curve. T tests usually are used to test hypotheses about the mean of a population when the sample size is intermediate and the distribution of the population is known to be nearly normal.

Taguchi Loss Function - G. Taguchi pointed out that both the manufacturer's and society's expected loss (or cost) is reduced when the results of a process are centered on the intended target value with little variation. The loss (cost) is ever increasing as those same product characteristics depart from their targets. The expected loss also depends on where the distribution is, relative to the target. The Taguchi loss function is often shown as a parabolic curve, but in some situations the loss function is asymmetric with respect to the target, or desired value.

Taguchi Method - An approach to quality management developed by dr. Genichi taguchi in 1980. The taguchi method provides: (1) a basis for determining the functional relationship between controllable product or service design factors and the outcomes of a process, (2) a method for adjusting the mean of a process by optimizing controllable variables, and (3) a procedure for examining the relationship between random noise in the process and product or service variability.

Tampering - Adjusting a stable process in an attempt to improve the next result by compensating for or taking into account the deviation from the target of the previous result. Tampering, or over-adjustment of a stable process, actually increases the variation of the results.

Tangibles - A dimension of service quality that refers to the physical appearance of the service facility, the equipment, the personnel, and the communications material.

Target Company - The company that is being studied or benchmarked against.

Targeted Process - The process that is being studied or benchmarked.

Task Environment - The portion of a firm’s environment pertaining to structural issues such as the skill levels of employees, remuneration policies, technology, and the nature of government agencies.

Task Needs - Assessment the process of assessing the skills that are needed within a firm.

Tactic - A specific device or plan for carrying out a strategy.

Team - A group of individuals working to achieve a goal with activities requiring close coordination.

Team Building - A term that describes the process of identifying roles for team members and helping the team members succeed in their roles.

Teamware - Computer software that is used in making group decisions.

Technology Feasibility Statement - A feasibility statement used in the design process to assess a variety of issues such as necessary parameters for performance, manufacturing imperatives, limitations in the physics of materials, and conditions for quality testing the product.

Technology Selection for Product Development - The process of selecting materials and technologies that provide the best performance for the customer at an acceptable cost.

Theory - "A system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena." (American Heritage dictionary] "theory leads to prediction. Without prediction, experience and examples teach us nothing." "No number of examples establishes a theory, yet a single unexplained failure of a theory requires modification or even abandonment of the theory." [From Deming's discussion of theory of knowledge].

Theory of Constraints (TOC)

Theory of Equally Likely Outcomes - If an experiment has n possible outcomes, and (for example, by symmetry) there is no reason that any of the n possible outcomes should occur preferentially to any of the others, then the chance of each outcome is 100%/n. Each of these theories has its limitations, its proponents, and its detractors.

Theory of Probability - A way of assigning meaning to probability statements that is, a theory of probability connects the mathematics of probability, which is the set of consequences of the axioms of probability, with the real world of observation and experiment

Frequency Theory of Probability - The probability of an event is the limit of the percentage of times that the event occurs in repeated, independent trials under essentially the same circumstances.

Subjective Theory of Probability - A probability is a number that measures how strongly we believe an event will occur. The number is on a scale of 0% to 100%, with 0% indicating that we are completely sure it won't occur, and 100% indicating that we are completely sure that it will occur.

30,000 Foot-Level - A six sigma kpov, ctq, or y variable response that is used in s4/iee to describe a high level project or operation metric that has infrequent subgrouping/sampling such that short-term variations, which might be cause by kpivs, will result in charts that view these perturbations as common cause issues. A 30,000 foot-level xmr chart can reduce the amount of fire fighting in an organization when used to report operational metrics.

360-Degree Evaluation - A method for evaluating performance with input from supervisors, peers, and employees.

Three Spheres of Quality - Quality management, quality assurance, and quality control.

Three T’s - The task, treatment, and tangibles in service design.

Tiger Teams - Teams with a specific defined goal and a short time frame to attain the goal.

Tolerance Design - The act of determining the amount of allowable variability around parameters.

Top Management - person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.3.1) at the highest level - according to ISO9000

Total Quality - Used together, these words are usually meant to recognize that real quality requires all elements of the organization to work together toward achieving that end. It means to strive for excellence in everything an organization does. It refers to a concept whereas total quality management refers to a collection of practices.

TQC - Total Quality Control - A term used to describe an approach in which an organization strives to achieve excellence in all aspects of its endeavours and activities. Frequent use of the term total quality control probably started with the book what is total quality control by Kaoru Ishikawa [1985] but the term originated with Armand Feigenbaum in his 1961 book by that name.

Total Quality Control - an effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable the groups at the most economical levels which allow full-customer satisfaction. (Feigenbaum)

TQE - Total Quality in Education - TQM methods and practices applied to education.

TQHRM - Total Quality Human Resources Management an approach to human resources management that involves many of the concepts of quality management. The primary purpose of this approach is to provide employees a supportive and empowered work environment.

TQI - Total Quality Improvement - A term now used by some organizations (e.g., Hospitals) in place of TQM.

TQM - Total Quality Management. A collection of methods and practices an organization uses in an attempt to achieve total quality. Often used loosely as a general statement of purpose, tqm does not represent a specific method or set of methods, nor does it appear to represent a theory for transformation of organizations.

Traceability - The ability to track materials and products.

Training Needs - Analysis the process of identifying organizational needs in terms of capabilities, task needs assessment in terms of skill sets that are needed within the firm, and individual needs analysis to determine how employee skills fit with company needs.

Training Needs Assessment - A process for gathering organizational data relative to finding areas where training is most needed.

Training Program Design - A term that describes the pro-cess of tailoring a course or set of courses to meet the needs of a company.

Trait Dimension - A view of leadership that states that leadership potential is related to the “traits” of an individual, such as height.

Transcendent - A definition of quality that states that quality is something we all recognize but we cannot verbally define.

Tree Diagram - A tool used to identify the steps needed to address a particular problem. Graphically shows any broad goal broken into different levels of detailed actions. It encourages team members to expand their thinking when creating solutions

Turtle Diagram

Type I Error and Type II Error - A type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected erroneously when it is in fact true. A type II error occurs if the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is in fact false. See also Significance Level and Power.